General Informations on Hinges and Terminology

 

1.0 - WHAT HINGES ARE AND HOW THEY WORK

 

Hinges are mechanisms which enable a mobile element to rotate around the axis of a fixedelement. 
The fixed part (arm) is connected directly to the structure or by means of a counter-support. 
The mobile part (body), connected to the arm by means of a pin, is fastened to the element to be moved (door, flap, lid, etc.) and carries the possible elastic component such as a spring. 
 
 

Hinges may be: 

  • PASSIVE

  • ACTIVE

The former play no part in the equation of relative motion of the two elements, while the second contribute to it, assisting or resisting the impulse towards the relative natural motion of the two elements.
 
Where hinges have a horizontal or sloping axis, the force of gravity acting on the hinged body generates the natural motion which produces a variable torque with trigonometricallaw with respect to the axis of the hinge. 
 
In the case of vertical axis hinges it is the friction which generates the natural motion.This produces a constant torque which is always contrary to the direction of motion. The motion is generated by means of accumulators of energy (usually springs) situated in the kinematic chain of the hinge which interfere with the natural movement.
 
Passive hinges, the simplest, are usually made up of body and arm while active hinges include other elements as well as these to complete the mechanism. 
 
Hinges described in this catalogue are defined by certain characteristics which identify their method of operation and geometry to allow a classification.
 

The "General Characteristics" Tab displays a list and description of all the elements needed to classify these hinges.

 

 

2.0 - GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS

 
These identify the method of operation of the hinge.
 

2.1. Axis of rotation

This is the element around which the mobile part rotates. Identified by its direction, it may be: horizontal (H) -for drop-down doors-, sloping (S) -for side-opening doors-, vertical (V) - for side-opening doors-.
 

2.2.Elastic system

This element identifies the presence and the field of action of the components which alter the equation of natural motion. This may be: absent (A), only in closing (D), continuous (C),continuous with stop (E).
 

2.3. Direction of the elastic action

This element identifies the direction of the alteration of the equation of natural motion. This may be: absent (0), unidirectional (1), bi-directional (2).
 

2.4. Trend of active torque

This element identifies the quality of the intervention that alters equation of natural motion. This may be:

  • (N) absent;
  • (P) single proportional when its action varies in a linear way with the relative motion;
  • (R) compound proportional if the action varies in a linear way again but with two different laws along the arc of the relative motion;
  • (T) single sinusoidal when the action is proportional to a trigonometrical function during the relative motion;
  • (S) sinusoidal compound when the action is proportional to a trigonometrical function,
  • but with two different laws along the arc of the relative motion;
  • (M) fixed modulated when the action varies according to a more complex law to obtain a closer relation between natural motion and altered motion (i.e. with a motion which is balanced better);
  • (Q) modulated with displacement, as above, with the mobile element being displaced as well as rotating.

 

 

3.0 - GEOMETRICAL CHARACTERISTICS 

 
These refer to the dimensions of the hinges, the relative positions between the mobile and fixed parts and the couplings between the elements of the hinge, the fixed structure and the element to be rotated.
 

3.1. Distance between counter-support and body

This refers to the distance between the mobile and fixed part with the hinges closed. For the same type of hinge, this factor may have different values according to requirements (see drawing of OVEN DOOR HINGE COMPONENTS, dimension ?a?).
 

3.2. Distance between counter-support and axis of rotation

This refers to the distance on the horizontal plane from the fixed part to the axis of rotation. For the same type of hinge, this distance may vary due to a different distance between counter-support and body or because a different body (see drawing of OVEN DOOR HINGE COMPONENTS, dimension ?b?) is used. This distance may also vary as the hinge itself moves, due to hinges which shift as well as rotate.
 

3.3. Overall hinge dimensions

For dimensions see drawing of the single hinges.
 

3.4. Body fastenings

These indicate the type, the quantity, the dimensions and, where relevant, the distance between the points of connection between the mobile part of the hinge (body) and the element which picks up the motion from the hinge (see drawing of the single hinges).
 

3.5. Arm fastenings

In those hinges not fitted with a specific counter-support, these indicate the type, the quantity, the dimensions and, where relevant, the distance between the points of connection between the fixed part of the hinge (arm) and the structure (see drawingof the single hinges).
 

3.6. Counter-support fastening

In those hinges fitted with a specific counter-support, these indicate the type, the quantity, the dimensions and, where relevant, the distance between the points of connection between the counter-support, on which the arm of the hinge engages, and the structure (see drawing of the counter-supports).
 

3.7. Protruding arm stop on counter-support

This option offers a greater distance between counter-support and hinge body.
 

 

 

4.0 - OPTIONS

 
In active hinges, these refer to the elements which alter the equation of natural motion of themobile element or the type of hinge locking.
 

4.1. Springs

These are the energy accumulating elements used to activate the hinges. They are identified by type, dimensions and by their intrinsic elastic characteristics (we select them according to the characteristics of the motion required).
 

4.2. Balancing cams

These elements which have a special profile and slide on a roller fitted onto the counter-supportaccentuate or reduce the elastic response of the springs during the operation of the hinge (we select them according to the characteristics of the motion required).
 

4.3. Spring locking

These devices, applied to the body or to the arm, cancel the effect of the spring at a certainpoint in the travel of the hinge, in order to facilitate assembly and dismantling of the door (they may be selected according to the type of hinge).
 

4.4. Application details

Depending on the type of application, various designs are offered. For this reason it isimportant to indicate where and how the hinges and counter-supports are used. Please complete the questionnaire form.

General Informations on Hinges and Terminology